Thursday, 29 September 2016

sounds/noises



Some sounds/noises
bang=hitting
boom=thunder
chirp=sparrow/cricketer
crash=a car/plane (for accident)
creak=bed/gate/stair/door
hiss=snake
rattle=window
rustle=leave/paper
slam=door
squeak=mouse/shoe
thunder=storm
thump=hitting on the ground
******************
the cattle of dishes
the beat of drum
the ringing of bells
the tick of a clock
the slam of a door
the toot of a horn
the patter of raindrop
the clatter of kettle

Collections



Group names
a herd of cows
a litter of puppies
a galaxy of stars
a flock of sheep
a gang of thieves
a swarm of bees
a shoal of fish
a pair of shoes
a flight of steps
a bunch of grapes
a hand of bananas
a suit of clothes
a chest of drawers
a crowd of people
a pack of wolves
a pack of cards
a gaggle of geese
a set of tools
a host of angels

Voice changing part-6




Active voice: I will do my duty.
Passive voice: My duty will be done by me.
Active voice: Fortune favors the brave.
Passive voice: The brave are favored by fortune.
Active voice: Did they kill the tiger?
Passive voice: Was the tiger killed by them?
Active voice: The Lilliputians made Gulliver prisoner.
Passive voice: Gulliver was made prisoner by the Lilliputians.
Active voice: Bring me the book.
Passive voice: Let the book be brought for me.
Active voice: You should keep your promise.
Passive voice: Your promise should be kept.
Active voice: She is weaving a sari.
Passive voice: A sari is being woven by her.
Active voice: We must endure what we cannot cure.
Passive voice: What cannot be cured must be endured.
Active voice: Tell him to go.
Passive voice: Let him be told to go.
Active voice: Who stole the pen?
Passive voice: By whom was the pen stolen?
Active voice: I shall help you.
Passive voice: You will be helped by me.
Active voice: Do this sum.
Passive voice: Let this sum be done.
Active voice:  The girl is singing a song.
Passive voice: A song is being sung by the girl.
Active voice: He gave me the book.
Passive voice: The book was given me by him.
Active voice: He will help me.
Passive voice: I shall be helped by him.

Friday, 23 September 2016

Voice Changing Part-4

Cognate Object

Sometimes an Intransitive Verb takes a Noun of kindred meaning for its object and this object is called Cognate object.
Intransitive  Verb has object so  voice change is not done. But if there is Cognate Object of Intransitive Verb it can be changed into Passive Voice.

Example:
Active Voice: I ran a race.
Passive Voice: A race was run by me.
Active Voice: He fought a good fight.
Passive Voice: A good fight was fought by him.


Imperative Mood 
If it seems request, order, or warning  in the Imperative Mood of Transitive Verb Let will be used at the beginning of the Passive Voice.

Structure- Let +sub+be+vpp+pre+ob+extension.
Example:
Active Voice: Do it.
Passive Voice: Let it be done.
Active Voice: Post the letter.
Passive Voice: Let the letter be posted.
Active Voice: Send for the man.
Passive Voice: Let the man be sent for.
Active Voice: Let him do the sum.
Passive Voice: Let the sum be done.
Active Voice:  Tell us a story.
Passive Voice: Let a story be told.
Active Voice: Take care of your health.
Passive Voice: Let your health be taken care.

Negative Sentence;
 Structure- Let not +sub+be+vpp+pre+ob+extension.

Active Voice: Do not shut the door.
Passive Voice: Let not the door be shut.
***If  it is Complex Sentence both Principal and Subordinate clause to be turned into Passive Voice.
***In this case ‘It’ is used at the beginning of the sentence.  
Active Voice: I know that the boy said this.
Passive Voice: It is known to me that this was said by the boy.
Active Voice: Everybody says that they know it.
Passive Voice: It is said that it known to them.

*** In many cases there is no doer or agent in Passive Voice so on the basis of the meaning Subject is taken and changed into Passive Voice.

Active Voice: People did not build Rome in a day.
Passive Voice: Rome was not built in a day.
Active Voice: People call him a fool.
Passive Voice: He is called a fool.

*** If there is can/could/may/might/should/would in any sentence then be will be added with these words while changing from Active to Passive Voice.

Active Voice: I can do it.
Passive Voice: It can be done by me.
Active Voice: You could help me.
Passive Voice: I could be helped by you.
Active Voice: We should respect our parents.
Passive Voice: Our parents should be respected by us.


Some Transitive Verbs remain in Active form but these are used in Passive so these are called Quasi-Passive Verb.

Active Voice: Honey tastes sweet.
Passive Voice: Honey is sweet when it is tasted.
Active Voice: Rice sells cheap.
Passive Voice: Rice is cheap when it is sold.
Active Voice: The house is building.
Passive Voice: The house being built.
Active Voice: The rose smells sweet.
Passive Voice: The rose is sweet when it is smelt.

***Reflexive Object, Factitive Object and Adverbial Object are never used as Subject in Passive Voice.

Reflexive Object:

Active Voice: He killed himself.
Passive Voice: He was killed by himself. ( Himself was killed by him is a wrong sentence)
Active Voice: He hurt himself.
Passive Voice: He was hurt by himself.

Factitive Object:

Active Voice: We made him captain.
Passive Voice: He was made captain by us.

Adverbial Object:

Active Voice:  Karim worked ten hours.
Passive Voice: Ten hours taken by Karim in working.

Sometimes Passive Voice is better than Active Voice

Example:-   He was born in Rajshahi.
                   The tigers are found in the zoo.

Voice Changing Part-3

Future Indefinite Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Future Indefinite Tense
according to subject shall/will be  are used.


Structure: Sub+ shall/will be+vpp+pre.+ob.
     
        Active voice: We will do the work.
Passive voice: The work will be done by us.
Active voice: I shall do my duty.
Passive voice: My duty will be done be me.
Active voice: He will run a race.
Passive voice: A race will be run by him.
Active voice: We will call you.
Passive voice: You will be called by us.

Interrogative Sentence

Structure: Shall/will+Sub+be+ vpp+pre.+ob?

Active voice: Will you finish the work today?
Passive voice: Will the work be finished today by you?
Active voice: Shall I help you?
Passive voice: Will you be helped by me?

Future Contnuous Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Future Contnuous Tense
according to subject shall/will be being  are used.

Structure: Sub+ shall/will be+being+vpp+pre.+ob.


Active voice: He will be reading the newspaper now.
Passive voice: The newspaper will be being read by him now.
Active voice: We will be playing football then.
Passive voice: Football will be being played by us then.

Interrogative sentence

Structure: Shall/will+Sub+be+being vpp+pre.+ob?

Active voice: Will you be singing a song?
Passive voice: Will a song be being sung by you?
Active voice: Shall I be learning my lesson?
Passive voice: Will my lesson be being learnt by me?


Future Perfect Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Future Perfect Tense
according to subject shall/will have been  are used.


Structure: Sub+ shall/will have been+vpp+pre.+ob.

Active voice: He will have sold the car by this time.
Passive voice: The car will have been sold by him by this time.
Active voice: The teacher will have punished the boy.
Passive voice: The boy will have been punished by the teacher.

Negative sentence
Structure: Sub+ shall/will have been+vpp+pre.+ob.

Active voice: I shall have not done the work.
Passive voice: The work will have not been done by me.
Active voice: They will have not told me  a story.
Passive voice: A story will have not been told me by them.


Future Perfect Continuous Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Future Perfect Tense
according to subject shall/will have been  are used.

Structure: Sub+ shall/will have been being+vpp+pre.+ob.

Active voice: I shall have been doing the work.
Passive voice: The work will have been being done by me.


Voice Changing Part-2

Past Indefinite Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Past Indefinite Tense
according to subject was/were  are used.

   Structure: Sub+was/were+vpp+pre.+ob.

   Active voice: I did it.
    Passive voice: It was done by me.
   Active voice: He read the book
    Passive voice: The book was read by him.
    Active voice: The police caught the thief.
    Passive voice: The thief was caught by the police.
    Active voice: The boy broke the glass.
    Passive voice: The glass was broken by the boy

    Interrogative sentence

 Structure:  Was/were+sub+vpp+pre+ob?

   Active voice: Did you lose your pen?
    Passive voice: Was your pen lost by you?
   Active voice: Who gave you money?
    Passive voice: By whom were you given money?
   Active voice: What did you do?
    Passive voice: What was done by you?
   Active voice: Did they catch the bird?
    Passive voice: Was the bird caught by them?


Past Continuous Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Past Continuous Tense according to subject was/were being  are used.

    Structure: Sub+was/were being+vpp+pre.+ob.

 Active voice: They were making a noise in the class.
Passive voice: A noise was being made by them in the class.
Active voice: He was helping the boys.
Passive voice: The boys were being helped by them.

Negative sentence:

Active voice: They were not learning the lesson.
Passive voice: The lesson was not being learnt by them.

Interrogative Sentence:

Structure:  Was/were+sub+being+vpp+pre+ob?

Active voice: Were you helping them?
Passive voice: Were they being helped by them?
Active voice: What were you doing so long?
Passive voice: What was being done so long by you?
Active voice: Who teaching you?
Passive voice: By whom were you being taught?

 Past Perfect  Tense
*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Past Perfect Continuous Tense according to subject had been  is used.

Structure: Sub+ had been +vpp+pre.+ob.

Active voice: He had sold milk.
Passive voice: Milk had been sold by them.
       Active voice:: Mary had gathered fruits and flowers
Passive voice: : Fruits and flowers had been gathered by Mary.
       Active voice: I had done my duty before you came here.
Passive voice: My duty had been done by me before you came here.

Interrogative Sentence
   Structure: Had+Sub+been+ vpp+pre.+ob?
     
       Active voice: Had he already read the book?
Active voice: Had the book been read by him already?
       Active voice: Had you seen him?
Passive voice: Had he been seen by you?
       Active voice: Had they done their homework?
Passive voice: Had their homework been done by them?




Past Perfect Continuous Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Past Perfect Continuous Tense according to subject had been being  are used.


Structure: Sub+ had been+being +vpp+pre.+ob.
Active voice: We had been doing the work since yesterday.
Passive voice: The work had been being done by us since yesterday.
Active voice: They had been memorizing the question answer for one hour.
Passive voice: The question answer had been being memorized by them.

Negative sentence:
Active voice: He had not been doing the work.
Passive voice: The work had not been being done by him.

Voice Changing Part-1

Rules of changing Voice

***Voice refers to the form of verb that shows or makes it clear whether the subject acts or acted upon.It is an important section of English grammar that helps the learners to understand English language.

 Voice is of two kinds

1.  Active Voice      2.  Passive Voice

Active voice: When Subject works by himself the verb becomes of Active voice
Example: I eat rice.

Passive voice: When verb is given importance instead of subject it becomes Passive voice
Example: Rice is eaten by me.

Rules of making Passive voice from Active voice are given below.

***All the objects will be turned into subjects and subjects will be object in case of changing active to passive voice.

Active  voice: He (sub) likes you (ob).

Passive voice: You (sub) are liked by him (ob).

*** You have to use preposition before object while  changing from active voice to passive voice.

Active voice: I knew him
Passive voice: He was known to  (preposition) me.
       Active voice: We play football.
       Passive voice: Football is played by (preposition) us.


***Principal verb of passive voice will always be in past participle form.

***According to verb of tense auxiliary verb will be used.

Present Indefinite Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Present Indefinite Tense according to subject am / is /are  are used.

Structure: Sub+am/is/are+vpp+pre.+ob.
 Active voice: I do my duty
        Passive voice: My duty is done by me.
 Active voice: He teaches me English.
 Passive voice: I am taught English by him.

    Active voice: He catches birds
    Passive voice: Birds are caught by him.
  
Interrogative Sentence

Am/is/are+sub+vpp+pre+ob?

    Active voice: Do you like it?
    Passive voice: Is it liked by you?
   Active voice: What do you want?
    Passive voice: What is wanted by you?
   Active voice: Whom do you want?
    Passive voice: Who is wanted by you?

We have to remember these rules for changing voice

Sbject
Object.
I
Me
We
Us
He
Him
She
Her
They
Them
You
You
Who
Whom
 
More examples:
    Active voice: A brave man does his duty.
    Passive voice: His duty is done by a brave man.
   Active voice: I see him come.
    Passive voice: He is seen to come by me.
    Active voice:  They play cricket.
    Passive voice: Cricket is played by them.

Present Continuous Tense


*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Present Continuous Tense according to subject am being / is being /are beimg  are used.

Structure: Sub+am/is/are+being+vpp+pre.+ob.

   Active voice: They are playing football.
    Passive voice: Football is being played by them.
   Active voice: He is making tea.
    Passive voice: Tea is being made by him.
   Active voice: I am watching a movie.
    Passive voice: A movie is being watched by me.

Interrogative Sentence

Am/is/are+sub+being+vpp+pre+ob?

   Active voice: Is he catching fish?
    Passive voice: Is fish being caught by him?
   Active voice: Are you writing a letter?
    Passive voice: I s letter being written by him?
   Active voice: What are you doing?
    Passive voice: What is being done by you?

Negative sentence

Structure: Sub+am/is/are+not+being+vpp+pre.+ob.

   Active voice: He is not doing the work.
    Passive voice: The work is not being done by him.
   Active voice: They are not putting the things right
    Passive voice: The things are not being put right by them.


Present Perfect Tense
*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Present Perfect Tense according to subject have/has been  are used.

Structure: Sub+have/has been+vpp+pre.+ob.

   Active voice: I have done the work.
    Passive voice: The work has been done by me.
   Active voice: We have done our duty.
    Passive voice: Our duty has been done by us.

 Interrogative Sentence

Have/has+sub+been+vpp+pre+ob?

   Active voice: Have you done your work?
    Passive voice: Has your work been done by you?
   Active voice: What have you done?
    Passive voice: What has been done by you?
   Active voice: Who has done it?
    Passive voice: By whom has it been done?
   Active voice: Has she done her homework?
    Passive voice: Has her homework been done by her?


Present Perfect Continuous Tense

*** In case of changing Active voice to Passive voice if the sentence is Present Perfect  Continuous Tense according to subject have/has been being  are used.

    Structure: Sub+have/has been+being+vpp+pre.+ob.

   Active voice: We have been doing the work since morning.
    Passive voice: The work has been being done by us.
   Active voice: John has been reading the novel for two hours.
    Passive voice: The novel has been being read by John for two hours.